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The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs released the latest 9 major crop fertilization guidanc

Issuing time:2019-04-30 09:18

On March 30th, the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs issued the "Guidelines for Scientific Fertilization of Main Crops in Spring of 2018", which puts fertilization guidance opinions on crops such as wheat, rice, corn, potato, rapeseed, soybean, cotton, fruit trees and vegetables this year. For the reference of growers.


wheat


I. Irrigation winter wheat area in the North China Plain


(1) Before returning to green, the total number of stems per acre is less than 450,000. The three types of wheat fields with lighter leaf color and poor growth should be managed in time for fertilizer and water. Spring topdressing can be carried out twice. For the first time in the greening period, 5~8 kg of urea was applied per acre with watering; the second time was 5~10 kg of urea per acre during the jointing period.


(2) Before returning to green, the total number of stems per acre is between 45,000 and 600,000, and the second group of wheat fields with a small population is 10 to 15 kg of urea per acre combined with watering in the wheat-producing period.


(3) Before returning to green, the total number of stems per acre is between 60,000 and 800,000. A suitable group of wheat fields can be combined with watering for 12 to 15 kilograms per acre during jointing.


(4) Before returning to green, the total number of stems per acre is more than 800,000, the leaves are dark green, and there is a tendency to grow. In the greening period, the cultivating can be used to suppress the application of nitrogen fertilizer and reduce the amount of nitrogen fertilizer, control the population, prevent lodging and Greedy and late. Generally, 8~10 kg of urea can be applied per mu in the late stage of jointing.


(5) It is recommended to apply nitrogen and phosphorus compound fertilizer to the bottom fertilizer without applying phosphate fertilizer or phosphorus deficiency field. If no potassium fertilizer is applied or applied, it is recommended to apply nitrogen and potassium compound fertilizer in the greening or jointing stage; there is no irrigation condition or no effective precipitation. Urea and potassium dihydrogen phosphate can be sprayed on the leaf surface in spring to play the role of fertilizer.


(6) It can spray potassium dihydrogen phosphate, boron fertilizer and zinc fertilizer on the foliar surface of wheat during grain filling stage to prevent dry hot air and lodging, increase grouting strength and increase grain weight.


(7) For deep-sown weak seedlings, the field with weak tillering and weak seedlings is recommended to apply 10~15 kg of urea during the returning period.


Second, the North China rain winter wheat area


(1) In the early spring, the soil is green or snow, and it is applied with chemical fertilizer or ditching strips. 5~7 kg of urea is applied per acre, and the soil is covered after fertilization. If the rain occurs in the middle and late stages of growth, urea can be applied 5~8 per mu. kg. In the phosphorus-deficient field, 7-10 kg of diammonium phosphate is used per mu, and the potassium-deficient plot is 15-20 kg of nitrogen-potassium compound fertilizer.


(2) For the total stem number is more than 800,000, the spring wheat seedlings are yellow or the yellowing of the gasket, and the top dressing can be carried out 2~3 times in the greening period to the topping stage, and the high nitrogen compound fertilizer per acre is applied 10 kg/time.


(3) The wheat population is too small during the wintering period, and it is divided into two or three times during the jointing period to carry out topdressing, followed by rainfall of 5-8 kg/mu per mu.


(4) It is necessary to combine the pest control, "one spray three prevention" and other means to supplement the sulfur, zinc, boron and other trace elements in the root dressing, spray urea and potassium dihydrogen phosphate, etc., to play the role of fertilizer.


Third, the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River winter wheat area


(1) The production level is below 300 kg/mu, from the start-up period to the jointing stage, combined with irrigation and 6~8 kg/mu of urea; the production level is 300-400 kg/mu, and the jointing period is combined with irrigation to apply urea 8~11. Kg/mu and potassium chloride 1~3 kg/mu; production level 400~550 kg/mu, from the period of the body to the jointing stage, combined with irrigation, topdressing urea 11~16 kg/mu and potassium chloride 3~5 kg/mu; The production level is 550 kg/mu or more. From the start-up period to the jointing stage, combined with irrigation, the application of urea is 17~20 kg/mu and the potassium chloride is 3~5 kg/mu.


(2) In some areas where trace elements are scarce, it is advocated to combine the "one spray three prevention", combined with the prevention and control of pests and diseases, spraying micro-element foliar fertilizer in wheat jointing stage, booting stage and filling stage; Foliar application was carried out with potassium dihydrogen phosphate 150-200 g plus 0.5-1 kg urea and 50 kg water.


Fourth, the northwest rain and dry farming for winter wheat area


(1) In order to prevent the later drought, the soil should be repressed or slashed before the soil is thawed and returned to the green, and the soil is removed, the soil is soiled, and the soil is protected. For the dry land that has been overwintered, the water is removed early before thawing and greening, and the knot is removed to eliminate cracks. Before the wheat is closed, 200-300 kg of wheat or corn stalks per acre can be covered between rows.


(2) In the field where the fertilizer is insufficiently invested, it is necessary to grasp the timing of the rain and timely carry out the wheat early spring topdressing. The nitrogen-deficient field uses 5-7 kg of urea per acre, and the phosphate-poor field uses 7-10 kg of diammonium phosphate per acre, and is applied to the soil by a fertilizer applicator (耧). Dry land with irrigation conditions, combined with spring irrigation, 6-8 kg of urea per acre of nitrogen-deficient fields, and 8-10 kg of diammonium phosphate per acre of phosphate-poor field.


(3) Before the sowing, the sensation is good or the sowing is early, and the fertilization amount is high. In dry land without irrigation conditions, it is necessary to suppress the plan and protect the land as soon as possible. In the dry land where the winter water is poured, the water should be drained early and the spring watering should be postponed until the late jointing stage.


(4) Fields with late sowing and weak seedlings should be combined with Baoyu as soon as possible to improve the ground temperature and promote the growth of weak seedlings.


V. Northwest Irrigation Spring Wheat Area


(1) Recommended 17-18-10 (N-P2O5-K2O) or similar formula.


(2) The production level is 300~400 kg/mu, and the recommended dosage of formula fertilizer is 20~25 kg/mu. From the start-up period to the jointing stage, combined with irrigation and topdressing urea 10~15 kg/mu.


(3) The production level is 400~550 kg/mu, and the recommended dosage of formula fertilizer is 30~35 kg/mu. From the start-up period to the jointing stage, combined with irrigation, 15~20 kg/mu of urea is applied.


(4) The production level is 550 kg/mu or more, and the recommended dosage of formula fertilizer is 35~40 kg/mu. From the start-up period to the jointing stage, combined with irrigation, 15~20 kg/mu of urea.


(5) The production level is below 300 kg/mu, and the recommended dosage of formula fertilizer is 15~20 kg/mu. The period from the start-up period to the jointing stage is combined with irrigation and 5~10 kg/mu of urea.


Rice


1. Single-season rice area in the northeast cold region


(1) Recommended 13-19-13 (N-P2O5-K2O) or similar formula.


(2) The production level is 450~550 kg/mu, and the recommended dosage of formula fertilizer is 18~23 kg/mu. The fertilizer is divided into 5~7 kg/mu and 3 kg/mu respectively.


(3) The production level is 550 kg/mu or more, and the recommended dosage of formula fertilizer is 23~29 kg/mu. The fertilizer is applied to the fertilizer and the grain fertilizer is 7~84 kg/mu, 3~4 kg/mu, respectively. Potassium is 1~3 kg/mu.


(4) The production level is below 450 kg/mu, and the recommended dosage of formula fertilizer is 14~18 kg/mu. The fertilizer is divided into 4~54 kg/mu and 2~3 kg/mu, respectively.


Second, the Northeast single-season rice area


(1) Recommended 15-16-14 (N-P2O5-K2O) or similar formula.


(2) The production level is 500~600 kg/mu, and the recommended dosage of formula fertilizer is 24~28 kg/mu. The fertilizer is divided into 8~9 kg/mu and 4~5 kg/mu, respectively.


(3) The production level is 600 kg/mu or more, and the recommended dosage of formula fertilizer is 28~33 kg/mu. The fertilizer is divided into 9~114 kg/mu and 5 kg/mu, respectively, and the grain fertilizer is applied to the potassium chloride. 1~3 kg/mu.


(4) The production level is below 500 kg/mu, and the recommended dosage of formula fertilizer is 19~24 kg/mu. The fertilizer is divided into 6~84 kg/mu and 3~4 kg/mu, respectively. Zinc-deficient or cold-impregnated field-based zinc sulphate 1~2 kg/mu, silicon fertilizer 15~20 kg/mu.


3. Single-season rice area in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River


(1) The production level is below 450 kg/mu, the nitrogen fertilizer (N) dosage is 6~8 kg/mu; the production level is 450~550 kg/mu, the nitrogen fertilizer (N) dosage is 8~10 kg/mu; the production level is 550~650 kg. /mu, nitrogen fertilizer (N) dosage 10~12 kg/mu; production level 650 kg/mu or more, nitrogen fertilizer (N) dosage 12~14 kg/mu. Phosphate fertilizer (P2O5) 4~6 kg/mu, potash fertilizer (K2O) 5~8 kg/mu.


(2) Nitrogen fertilizer base fertilizer accounts for 50%~60%, manure fertilizer accounts for 20%~30%, panicle fertilizer accounts for 20%~30%; organic fertilizer and phosphate fertilizer all base application; potassium fertilizer base fertilizer (50%~60%) and Spike fertilizer (40% to 50%) was applied twice.


(3) In the zinc-deficient and boron-deficient areas, apply appropriate amount of zinc fertilizer and boron fertilizer; in the soil with strong acidity, the application of siliceous alkaline fertilizer or quicklime 30~50 kg per acre.


4. Single and double rice fields in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River


(1) The production level is below 350 kg/mu, the nitrogen fertilizer (N) dosage is 6~7 kg/mu; the production level is 350~450 kg/mu, the nitrogen fertilizer (N) dosage is 7~8 kg/mu; the production level is 450~550 kg. /mu, nitrogen fertilizer (N) dosage 8~10 kg/mu; production level 550 kg/mu or more, nitrogen fertilizer (N) dosage 10~12 kg/mu. Phosphate fertilizer (P2O5) 4~7 kg/mu, potash fertilizer (K2O) 4~8 kg/mu.


(2) 50%~60% of nitrogen fertilizer as base fertilizer, 20%~25% as glutinous fertilizer, 20%~25% as stalk fertilizer; all phosphorus fertilizer as base fertilizer; 50%~60% of potassium fertilizer as base fertilizer, 40%~50% as Spike fertilizer; in the zinc-deficient area, the appropriate amount of zinc fertilizer (zinc sulfate) 1 kg / mu; appropriate base application of silicon fertilizer; organic fertilizer base application.


(3) The amount of base fertilizer can be appropriately reduced by applying organic fertilizer or planting green manure, and the amount of potassium fertilizer can be reduced by about 30% in the land where straw is returned to the field.


5. Single-season rice area in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River


(1) The output level is below 500 kg/mu, the nitrogen fertilizer (N) dosage is 8~10 kg/mu, the phosphate fertilizer (P2O5) is 2~3 kg/mu; the potassium fertilizer (K2O) is 3~4 kg/mu; the production level is 500~600. Kg/mu, nitrogen fertilizer (N) dosage 10~12 kg/mu, phosphate fertilizer (P2O5) 3~4 kg/mu; potassium fertilizer (K2O) 4~5 kg/mu; production level 600 kg/mu or more, nitrogen fertilizer (N) The dosage is 12~18 kg/mu. Phosphate fertilizer (P2O5) 5~6 kg/mu; potassium fertilizer (K2O) 6~8 kg/mu, zinc fertilizer (zinc sulfate) 1~2 kg/mu.


(2) Nitrogen fertilizer base fertilizer accounts for 40%~50%, manure fertilizer accounts for 20%~30%, panicle fertilizer accounts for 20%~30%; organic fertilizer and phosphate fertilizer all base application; potassium fertilizer base fertilizer (50%~60%) And panicle fertilizer (40%~50%) applied twice. The zinc-deficient soil is applied with 1 to 2 kg of zinc sulfate per acre; the suitable base is silicon-containing fertilizer.


(3) The amount of base fertilizer can be appropriately reduced by applying organic fertilizer or planting green manure.


6. Single and double-season rice areas in the hilly mountains of the south of the Yangtze River


(1) Under the condition of about 500 kg per mu, nitrogen fertilizer (N) 10~13 kg/mu, phosphate fertilizer (P2O5) 3~4 kg/mu; potash fertilizer (K2O) 8~10 kg/mu.


(2) Nitrogen application in divided applications, base fertilizer accounts for 35%~50%, tiller fertilizer accounts for 25%~35%, panicle fertilizer accounts for 20%~30%, tiller fertilizer is appropriately postponed; all phosphate fertilizers are applied; potassium fertilizer is 50% as base fertilizer 50% as the ear fertilizer.


(3) It is recommended to return the straw to the field or increase the application of organic fertilizer. For the plots where the straw is returned to the field, the amount of potassium fertilizer can be reduced by 30%; for the field with organic fertilizer, the amount of base fertilizer can be appropriately reduced.


(4) On the soil with strong acidity, 40~50 kg of siliceous alkaline fertilizer or quicklime should be applied per acre.


(5) Appropriate application of zinc fertilizer in zinc-deficient areas.


7. The double-season early rice in the hills of the South China Plain


(1) Recommended 18-12-16 (N-P2O5-K2O) or similar formula.


(2) The yield per mu is 350~450 kg, the recommended dosage of formula fertilizer is 26~33 kg/mu, the base fertilizer is 13~20 kg/mu, and the split fertilizer and panicle fertilizer are applied respectively for 5~8 kg/mu, 3~5 kg/ mu.


(3) The yield per mu is 450~550 kg, the recommended dosage of formula fertilizer is 33~41 kg/mu, the base fertilizer is 17~24 kg/mu, and the split fertilizer and panicle fertilizer are applied respectively 7~10 kg/mu, 4~7 kg/ mu.


(4) The yield per mu is more than 550 kg, the recommended dosage of formula fertilizer is 41~48 kg/mu, the base fertilizer is 22~29 kg/mu, and the split fertilizer and panicle fertilizer are applied respectively for 8~11 kg/mu, 5~8 kg/mu. .


(5) The yield per mu is below 350 kg, the recommended dosage of formula fertilizer is 20~25 kg/mu, the base fertilizer is 11~14 kg/mu, and the split fertilizer and panicle fertilizer are applied respectively for 4~6 kg/mu, 3~5 kg/mu. .


Eight, southwest plateau mountain single-season rice area


(1) Recommended 17-13-15 (N-P2O5-K2O) or similar formula.


(2) The production level is 400~500 kg/mu, and the recommended dosage of formula fertilizer is 26~33 kg/mu. The fertilizer is divided into 6~74 kg/mu and 4~5 kg/mu respectively.


(3) The production level is 500~600 kg/mu, and the recommended dosage of formula fertilizer is 33~39 kg/mu. The fertilizer is applied to the fertilizer and the grain fertilizer is 7~84 kg/mu, 5~6 kg/mu, respectively. Potassium chloride 1~2 kg/mu.


(4) The production level is above 600 kg/mu, and the recommended dosage of formula fertilizer is 39~46 kg/mu. The fertilizer is applied to the fertilizer and the grain fertilizer is 8~104 kg/mu, 6~7 kg/mu, respectively. Potassium is 2~4 kg/mu.


(5) The production level is below 400 kg/mu, and the recommended dosage of formula fertilizer is 20~26 kg/mu. The fertilizer is divided into 4~64 kg/mu and 3~4 kg/mu, respectively.


(6) In the zinc-deficient area, apply 1~2 kg of zinc sulfate per acre; apply 30-50 kg of siliceous alkaline fertilizer or quicklime per acre in the field with low soil pH value.


Spring corn


First, the northeast cold spring corn area


(1) Recommended 14-18-13 (N-P2O5-K2O) or similar formula.


(2) The production level is 500~600 kg/mu, the recommended dosage of formula fertilizer is 23~28 kg/mu, and the application rate of urea in the seven-leaf stage is 11~13 kg/mu.


(3) The production level is 600~700 kg/mu, the recommended dosage of formula fertilizer is 28~32 kg/mu, and the urea in the seven-leaf stage is 13~16 kg/mu.


(4) The production level is above 700 kg/mu, the recommended dosage of formula fertilizer is 32~37 kg/mu, and the application of urea in the seven-leaf stage is 16~18 kg/mu.


(5) The production level is below 500 kg/mu, the recommended dosage of formula fertilizer is 18~23 kg/mu, and the application rate of urea in the seven-leaf stage is 9~11 kg/mu.


Second, the semi-humid spring corn area in Northeast China


1. Base chasing combined with fertilization recommendations:


(1) Recommended 15-18-12 (N-P2O5-K2O) or similar formula.


(2) The production level is 550~700 kg/mu, the recommended dosage of formula fertilizer is 24~31 kg/mu, and the large flare period is 13~16 kg/mu.


(3) The production level is 700~800 kg/mu, the recommended dosage of formula fertilizer is 31~35 kg/mu, and the large flare period is about 16~18 kg/mu.


(4) The production level is above 800 kg/mu, the recommended dosage of formula fertilizer is 35~40 kg/mu, and the large flare period is about 18~21 kg/mu.


(5) The production level is below 550 kg/mu, and the recommended dosage of formula fertilizer is 20~24 kg.


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